Dyslexia is characterized by difficulties in learning to read at the usual age, when any insufficiencies or sector defects have been proven inexistent. When spelling difficulties are associated with dyslexia, as is often the case, we talk of DYSLEXIA-DYSORTHOGRAPHY.

What can be seen in dyslexia is: the confusion, when reading, of graphemes whose pronunciation have close correspondence (a-n, s-ch) or whose shape is similar (p-q, d-b); the inversion (eg or-ro, cri-cir); and omission (eg bar-ba, arbre-arbe). There is also a difficulty in managing pauses and rhythm. We can talk about dyslexia from the age of 7 because, before this age, such errors are considered to be commonplace because of their frequency in children.

In dysorthography, the errors that occur are similar to those done when reading: omission, difficulty in transcribing similar sounds, gender, number and syntax confusion. Several are the factors highlighted as the origin of dyslexia-dysorthography. Among these, in recent decades, a prominent place is given to the psycho-emotional balance of a child: often dyslexic children show impulsive behaviours, limited capacity of symbolisation, and poor ability to tolerate frustration.


Psychosomatic disorders in children have a particular importance compared to those present in adults. In fact, since birth, the body is, for the child, the first mean of interaction with the environment, and the different physiological functions (nutrition, sphincter elimination, static and dynamic tone…) are needed in order to communicate with the environment. The psychosomatic symptom, therefore, occupies a privileged place in the interaction between mother and child. Many psychosomatic manifestations may also occur when diverse child maturation stages are reached, particularly related to the functioning of organs and psychological development.

The most common child psychosomatic disorders are those related to the digestive sphere (neonatal colic, vomiting, stomach ache, etc); frequent are also skin diseases (redness, sweating, pallor, eczema, alopecia, etc.), as well as asthma, migraine, and headache.


In the case of sexual abuse, the child / victim is not able to grasp the deep meaning of what is done to him/her, or the real and lasting consequences that it can bring. We talk about sexual abuse even in cases where the child is never physically touched, but is exposed to viewing or listening to stories with a sexual content that are not appropriate to their age or to the relationship with the abuser. Sexual abuse within the family is increasingly common and, because of the relationship between the victim and the abuser, it often causes serious problems in the child.

Main factor is the subjective response of the child to the event, a response  that is conditioned by a number of important factors such as: age at the time of the abuse, the duration, the presence or absence of penetration, the explicit use of violence, personality characteristics of child, the presence at the time of the abuse of certain psychological problems, the possibility to tell someone of the event,  the emotional support received after the event, further experiences that can worsen the situation or, conversely, help to gradually overcome the event . Sexual abuse is always a traumatic event and it very often leads, in children, to a Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder.

Other issues that may arise as a result of abusive acts are: low self-esteem, sexuality problems, psychosomatic disorders, anxiety, depression.


The experience of acute or chronic disease causes in the child different psycho-emotional reactions: the regression to a state of dependence similar to that of an infant is one of the most frequent. Depending on the severity of the disease, as well as on its duration and consequent disability, the child often develops a sense of deterioration of the body scheme and on how he/she experiences the body.

In the case of acute illness, the child’s reaction, however, depends on the age, whether or not there is hospitalization, and the aggressiveness of the necessary cures; hospitalization, especially in the first years of life, can lead to profound distress and perturbation