Eating disorders (ED) or or Psychogenic Eating Disorders (DAP), are refered  to a group of conditions defined by abnormal eating habits, concerning the relationship between individuals and the food.

Eating disorders are divided into three forms:

Anorexia nervosa, AN

Anorexia nervosa (AN) is, along with bulimia, one of the most common eating disorders, also known as Psychogenic Eating Disorders (DAP). Anorexia nervosa is characterized by refusal to maintain a healthy body weight and an obsessive fear of gaining weight.  In more severe forms can be developed malnutrition, starvation, emaciation and amenorrhoea. Its nosographic origins are very ancient. Psychological functions neuroendocrine, hormonal and metabolic disorders are involved in its evolution. Possible treatments are still under study. The current pharmacological treatments may give only a modest benefit to the person. Anorexia nervosa is an illness, and should not be confused with the symptom called anorexia (its presence is indicative of a different pathological state of the individual).

Bulimia nervosa (BN)

The term bulimia comes from Greek βουλιμία (boulīmia; ravenous hunger), a compound of βους (bous), ox + λιμός (līmos), hunger. Bulimia is an eating disorder.  In fact, bulimia along with anorexia nervosa is one of the most important eating disorders, also known as Psychogenic Eating Disorders (DAP). Bulimia nervosa is characterized by binge eating and purging or consuming a large amount of food in a short amount of time, followed by an attempt to rid oneself of the food consumed, usually by purging (vomiting) and/or by laxative, diuretics or excessive exercise.

Binge eating disorder

The binge eating disorder, also known as BED (Binge Eating Disorder, English acronym) is an eating disorder that is presented clinically with episodes of binge eating typical of bulimia nervosa, but doesn’t show compensatory behaviors characteristic as vomiting, laxatives abuse or diuretics or fasting.

It is a common disease, especially among teenagers as a result of an excessively restrictive diet or personal problems, seeking a remedy for their suffering in food, until they lose control. The periodic binges may cover both sweet and savory foods, with subsequent abdominal colic.

The only thought of a person with this syndrome is to ingest any type of food to calm its anxieties, even if it is aware that could cause damage to his health, because they are too unhealthy and excessive. Usually he/she is an isolated person who has poor self-esteem and is full of guilt because they feel awkward and ugly. The dissatisfaction and depression seems to be solved only with food, but the increased weight makes even more difficult the social integration and discomfort.

Obesity

Obesity is a medical condition in which excess body fat has accumulated to the extent that it may have an adverse effect on health, leading to reduced life expectancy and/or increased health problems. Body mass index (BMI), a measurement which compares weight and height, defines people as overweight (pre-obese) if their BMI is between 25 and 30 kg/m2, and obese when it is greater than 30 kg/m.

Obesity is a typical disease, though not exclusively, in a “welfare” society. Obesity increases the likelihood of various diseases, particularly heart disease, type 2 diabetes, obstructive sleep apnea, certain types of cancer and osteoarthritis. Obesity is most commonly caused by a combination of excessive food energy intake, lack of physical activity and genetic susceptibility, although few cases are caused primarily by genes, endocrine disorders, medications or psychiatric illness. Obesity it is caused by the type of family and / or social environment in which the individual lives. In fact, the psychological approach to the treatment of the disease is now recognized as essential for full recovery of the obese patient.

Obesity today is still recognized as a multifactorial disease. Tests that support the argument that some people, although they do not eat, appear obese because of a slow metabolism, are limited. Obese people generally have greater energy expenditure than thins, due to the energy required to maintain a greater mass of the body.

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